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Tuesday 6 Aug 2019

10:00 am – 12:00 pm Day 2 Morning Session

10:00 am – 10:30 am

Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Piaget: The Global Relevance Of Kodály Influences In The 21st Century

Sean BreenNipah Room

The roots of many components of the Kodály Concept can be traced to the teachings of a group of philosophers and educational theorists who exercised significant influence on educational practice, including the Kodály Concept: Comenius (1592-1670), Rousseau (1712-1778), Pestalozzi (1746-1827), and Piaget (1896-1980.) Two decades into the 21st century, questions about multiculturalism, displaced children, gender equity, inclusion, and equal access, call us to reconsider the place of these teachings in the 21st century Kodály classroom. This presentation takes a critical look at the place of Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Piaget in the new, global 21st century Kodály classroom.
Tue 10:00 am – 10:30 am

Exploring Instructional Strategies Based on the Kodály Concept Emphasis on Play-Songs for Primary School in Korea

Dr. Youngmi LeeKabu Room

This presentation aims to explore application possibilities of educational directions based on the Kodály concept with focus on play-songs listed under revised music curriculum of 2015. It further aims to recommend various ways to use play-song singing activities in music classrooms. In order to research different methods of utilizing play-songs that can be implemented in classrooms, this presentation explores similarities and differences of play- songs with singing activities used in music schoolbooks for 1st-2nd grade-level published in 2018. Following the recommendation of educational directions from this study, subsequent study of ‘Development of a Music Learning Program to Create a Playground by Using Play- Songs’ is proposed, which compares current approach of simple song reading exercises in classrooms with a holistic approach of advanced music learning exercises that can teach skills applicable in and out of the classrooms.
Tue 10:00 am – 10:30 am

10:00 am – 10:50 am

Froggy Went A Courtin’

Jenny FerrisOld Courthouse Function Room

Purpose The purpose of this interactive workshop is to explore the ways a single folk song can be extended into an in-depth unit and the myriad of skills you can work on with your students based on one single piece of source material. The workshop will make connections with Senior Secondary curriculum and explore the ways we can begin preparing our students for this even in Primary education. Content The workshop will teach the folk song, explore instrumental applications through adding ukulele chords or xylophone bourdons, learning a folk dance to the song, explore the way folk song content can be made malleable over time by exploring different recordings and comparing/contrasting the lyric and melodic content of each and finally running a comparative listening exercise which will prepare the students for Secondary School music tasks. The workshop will be run much like a Kodaly classroom, with participants initially engaging in song and dance and then, through probing questions and further discussion, explore the pedagogical potential and applications of these activities. Applications for Music Education In many educational spheres, there is often a disconnect between one level of schooling and the next (from Early Childhood to Primary to Secondary to Tertiary and beyond). This workshop addresses some of the ways Primary educators can explore the Secondary curriculum and begin planting the seeds of skills and knowledge necessary for their students’ success in later years, leading to a truly sequential curriculum.
Tue 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Musicianship – Complex Metre and Irregular Rhythm

Josephine AngKerangas

Tue 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Salamat Datang, Traveling the World of Malaysia with Kanak-Kanak (Little Ones)

Dr. Chet-Yeng Loong-Old Courthouse Auditorium

Kodály (1974) raised the issue regarding the danger of “harm(ing) the child(ren) in his human and Hungarian character if they (teachers) nurture him (students) on poor songs (p. 147).” Thus, choosing good and appropriate music materials is as critical in our teaching as the way the lesson is structured. Presenter will share strategies for choosing authentic multi-cultural Malaysian materials woven with opportunities for exploration, imitation, improvisation and creativity featuring speech, singing, movement and instrument playing. Outline: Introduce the importance of teaching "world music" to young children and ways to adapt repertoire commonly used in elementary general music classes for these younger students featuring activities for exploration, imitation, improvisation and creativity. (10 minutes) Different categories of Malaysian music materials will be shared (35 min): 1) Welcome song: Kaansayan Sumuku, Murut, Sabah 2) Hand-clapping: 一角两角三角形 , (One cent, two cents, triangle), Chinese, Malaysia 3) Taps and Claps: Di sini senang 4) Lullaby: Iyang-Iyang, Rungus, Sabah 5) Singing Game: Wa Wa Pepek, Terengganu 6) Folk Song: Lenggang Kangkung 7) Ending: Rasa Sayang The repertoire is only listed as possibilities. Final repertoire choices will be chosen as the plan for the session is finalized. 5 min: Conclusion, Q & A Chet-Yeng Loong, biography Dr. Loong, a native Malaysian Chinese, has completed all levels of Orff Schulwerk Teacher Education and is certified in the Kodály Method. Before joining the University of Hawai`i, Dr. Loong taught music in the public schools of Malaysia and at Baldwin-Wallace College in Ohio. Dr. Loong’s focus areas are early childhood, elementary, and multicultural music. She has made music with young children in Ohio and Hawai`i since 1995.Several leading journals have published her research on early childhood and elementary music. Dr. Loong has presented at local, state, regional, national, and international conferences. Dr. Loong is the immediate past president of the Hawai`i Music Educators Association. Currently, she serves on the Korean Journal of Research in Music Education; is a reviewer for the Malaysia Music Journal; and is a member of the steering committee of the Alliance for Active Music Making in General Music Teacher Education. She also served on the editorial board of The Orff Echo and as the Chair of the AOSA Research Committee. In 2012, Dr. Loong was named the outstanding music education alumni from the University of Akron, where she received her bachelor's and master's degrees.
Tue 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Songs and Games for the Secondary School Classroom

Jennifer GillanTubau

Jenny Gillan is an experienced Kodaly music educator who works at the Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School and St Michael’s Grammar School in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. She writes games and songs to use in her Musicianship Classroom Music program to aid in teaching the elements of music taught in class. This session will be a practical workshop that will provide participants with songs and games to play with upper primary and secondary students. Links to melodic, harmonic or rhythmic elements will be provided as well as suggestions on how to teach these songs and games in a classroom setting.
Tue 10:00 am – 10:50 am

11:00 am – 11:30 am

A Report on the Teaching Sequence in the Philippines Based on the Folk Song Research of Dr. Miriam B. Factora

Daisy N. Marasigan, Carolyn K. ChengKabu Room

In 2003, Dr. Miriam B. Factora proposed a sequence to teach Rhythm and Melody in the Philippines as an offshoot of her three-year research and analysis of Philippine folk songs. Borne out of the research and aided by the character of the Philippine language, the teaching sequence introduces after and fa after sm. This paper is a report on how two schools in the Philippines adopted and implemented the sequence.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:30 am

Innovation Processes Emerging from the Kodály Philosophy and Methodology in the 21st Century

Terez TothNipah Room

This paper calls for the needs and the benefits of educational innovation concept in researching the vivid and live nature of the Kodály Philosophy in the global setting today. The research centres around the Summer School Music Program of Sound Thinking Australia in Brisbane, Australia led by James Cuskelly with contribution of internationally recognized Kodály educators from all over the world. The researcher conducted several interviews with professors and participants alike , and made several classroom visits. The research idea originates from my involvement in the work of INNOVA research group led by Gábor Halász in ELTE University Budapest, Hungary. This paper proposes an innovation framework as a tool to conceptualize the research around the innovative processes and outcomes of the Kodály concept in the 21st century. It attempts to highlight the importance of factors such as upscaling, and diffusion, the successful adaptation of the model in a different social and cultural setting – instead of merely replicating it. Considering the model as value-driven innovation , „Music for All”, this research aims to point to the social justice and inclusion of art/music education. Whereas as problem- driven innovation, it resonates the need for more comprehensive , holistic music education . Findings captured show dominant presence of 21st century skills in practice such as active listening, critical thinking and creativity. Implementing innovation approach reinforces the OECD-concept of pedagogy as a multi-layered concept: science, craft and art. Innovation methodology in researching Kodály concept in Brisbane Summer School leads to challenge certain elements of the system, such as the exclusivity of repertoire or the canon, which might help to redefine the original, i.e.Hungarian ,20th century, Kodály concept in a 21st century global setting.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:30 am

11:00 am – 11:50 am

Brain-Based Movement Activities to Teach Rhythmic and Melodic Elements

Ebony Birch-HangerOld Courthouse Function Room

Movement and music go hand in hand and the benefits of using music and movement together are well-documented. This workshop will involve participants in brain-based movement activities that can be used to prepare and teach a variety of music concepts and elements, while supporting students' motor planning and coordination. All activities will demonstrate how to enhance the coordination between both brain hemispheres by engaging students in movements that: use both sides of the body together; alternate between the right/left sides and top/bottom halves of the body; and involve crossing the body’s midline. Each activity contains several steps, increasing in difficulty, so they can be used with a broad variety of students, ranging from those with special needs to musically-advanced students, at all age-levels. Each activity will highlight a specific musical element, providing participants with new ways to teach these concepts to their students. Through ‘doing’, participants will learn how to provide students with the additional support they may need to be successful. Purpose of the workshop: To demonstrate the following to participants: – how one song can be used for multiple years, across different ages, by changing the focus of the activities and increasing the difficulty. – how movement can be used to isolate specific musical concepts and enhance students’ learning and understanding of such concepts. Applications for music education: The content of this workshop will enable participants to expand their teaching repertoire and provide them inspiration, motivation and confidence to teach Kodaly-based activities to a variety of individuals including students with special needs, primary and secondary students, and community choirs.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:50 am

Music in Preschool: A Kodály-Inspired Workshop Based on the Book by Katalin Forrai and Jean Sinor

Dr. Pamela StoverTubau

The purpose of this hands-on workshop is to demonstrate the teaching materials and methods found in Music in Preschool (1988, Second edition 1998) by Katalin Forrai (1926-2004), translated to English by Jean Sinor (1946-1999). Music in Preschool was one of the first practical sources for early childhood music materials based on scientific research and sound learning theory. This Kodály-based curriculum includes a chart of what is developmentally appropriate for 3- 4- and 5- year olds as well as many chants and traditional singing games that are appropriate for early childhood today. Katalin Forrai was an esteemed Hungarian Kodály scholar and educator at the Kodály Institute and Liszt Academy who not only served as the vice-president of the International Kodály Society and as president of ISME but was responsible for the founding of the Early Childhood Commission of ISME. Throughout over 100 teaching presentations and courses in at least twenty-six countries, Forrai spread Kodály-inspired teaching and elevated the status of music for young children. Jean Sinor was a professor of music education at Indiana University and in 1968-69 studied at the Liszt Academy on and National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship. She was the President of the Organization of American Kodály Educators (1982-1984) and served almost two four-year terms as President of the International Kodály Society (1992-1999). Sinor translated and adapted Forrai’s Ének az óvodában (1974, Budapest) as Music in Preschool for the English-speaking audience. The workshop focuses on the contents of Music in Preschool. The Kodaly-inspired philosophy and the selection of singing games and folk song material are at the heart of this workshop. Sample songs and lessons will be re-created for the session. Music in Preschool contains 63 rhymes and 130 songs and singing games using pitch and rhythm sets appropriate for young children. The bulk of the workshop will include singing games and rhymes such as the jump-rope rhyme “Apples, Peaches, Pears and Plums” and the finger-play “Hickory Dickory Dock.” The singing games will range from the simple “See Saw” sol-mi song to the more complex “Tideo.” Participants will sing and play the games. Also emphasized will be the criterion for selecting songs and musical activities and the sequencing of these materials to create a successful music education program for 3-6 year olds that leads to music literacy through folk song and game material.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:50 am

Piano Teaching Following Kodály’s Vision

Prof. Gilbert De GreeveOld Courthouse Auditorium

I start from Kodály’s thesis that music education, also instrumental training, always has to depart ‘from’ the music. For instance: the most logical (and natural) process to begin the study of an instrument is to begin playing little tunes that children have sung previously in the classroom. Hence the instrumental development process begins with materials that the child knows already, that it can sing and understand. That is a strong link to the Kodály Concept. I will also briefly speak about the challenges of starting with older students or adults, for whom in fact the same principles count as for children be it in another form and with another tempo of teaching. I will use a number of examples from the arrangements of Malaysian folksongs which I did for different levels of piano playing, inspired by Kodály’s vision that all aspects of instrumental teaching, also theoretical ones, have to come ‘from’ the music. Then I will switch to standard pieces and to the great importance of using good repertoire chosen in function of what needs to be developed, musically and technically. I will also emphasize the great importance of profound score analysis and ‘memory training’, and how these can be developed through right repertoire choices.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:50 am

The “Bartók Project”: Incorporating Technology into Creative Music Tasks

Dr. Michael BradshawKerangas

Sequential learning in Kodály-inspired teaching is often considered to culminate in creative or “generative” tasks such as composition and improvisation. These tasks are opportunities for the student to demonstrate a deep understanding of musical craft, stylistic knowledge, and cultural significance. However, musical creativity and the pedagogy of musical creativity is a vexed area ranging from highly structured teacher-led tasks to unstructured, student-led tasks. The nature of musical creativity can be further complicated once tasks include the use of music software that generates musical material with the click of a button. This workshop presents one possible approach to musical creativity within a high- school context that incorporates elements at both teacher-led and student-led pedagogy, resulting in a creative product that makes use of multi-track technology such as Garage Band. At the Conservatorium High School in Sydney, year 9 students engage in a creative task called the “Bartók Project.” Students begin by immersing themselves in music from Bartók’s Mikrokosmos. This learning is primarily teacher-led, and constitutes part of a unit on modal music and twentieth-century compositional techniques. This is then followed by a unit on Australian music, in which students are introduced to the creative work of the Australian artist Andrea Keller. In particular, students study tracks from Keller’s album, “The Bartók Project,” in which she uses Mikrokosmos pieces (already studied by students in the previous unit) as ideas for her creative improvisation-arrangement work. Students analyse the ways in which Keller has creatively developed the original ideas of Bartók, and begin to plan their own creative multi-track improvisation-arrangement based on a Mikrokosmos piece of their choice. By this stage the students creative work is student-led, for they have developed an in- depth practical understanding of the style with which they are working, and the original Bartók piece provides parameters through which the student channels their creativity. This practical workshop will guide participants through the methodology and some practical exercises of the “Bartók Project,” and showcase some student work. The goal is to provide participants with ideas that they can apply to their own teaching environments, whether that be in composition, improvisation, or the use of music technology.
Tue 11:00 am – 11:50 am

2:00 pm – 5:30 pm Day 2 Afternoon Session

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

Reframing Music Education: Teacher Perspectives on Engaging with Data

Kathleen PlastowNipah Room

Diminishing numbers in post-compulsory classroom music, anecdotally linked to unsatisfactory outcomes in music literacy, may indicate that researched benefits of engaging with formative assessment data are not being realised in Australian classroom music education. Moreover, existing research into assessment in music indicates that teachers engage in idiosyncratic, inconsistent and conflicting practices which encompass assessment for learning but do not ensure enhancement of student learning outcomes. Insufficient research has been conducted into teacher perspectives on using student assessment data in classroom music literacy for the purposes of pedagogical planning, provision of feedback, direct or corrective instruction, differentiation or to guide teacher professional learning. The aim of this research, therefore, is to develop an understanding of how classroom music teachers view assessment. In particular their beliefs, values and perspectives on engaging with data from ongoing, embedded, formative assessment of music literacy skills. In light of the research that has been undertaken in the benefits of formative assessment, understanding teacher perspectives may have implications for professional learning, and pedagogic praxis, leading to greater numbers of students studying music in the post-compulsory years. The case study aims to interpret the phenomenon through an interpretive theoretical perspective as the philosophical underpinning to support the constructionist methodology, as the research seeks to understand rather than explain the idiographic nature of perspectives through a social science approach, studied empirically in the natural environment so as to build rich, local understanding of the life-world experiences of teachers. Thematic analysis of data from surveys (N=43) and semi-structured interviews (N=4) identified three main themes; Limited preservice education training, limited or no assessment training and time constraints, as being the greatest inhibitors to teachers engaging with formative assessment data. Findings will be presented and implications for pre-service training, professional learning, teacher assessment identity formation and teacher assessment literacy will be discussed. Keywords: Teacher perspectives, data, classroom music, assessment, assessment for learning, curriculum-based measurement, formative assessment, music literacy, direct instruction, professional learning.
Tue 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

The Implementation Of Kodály Method In Dolanan Anak

Oriana Tio Parahita NainggolanKabu Room

Dolanan anak is a traditional game of children in Java. It consist of singing and moving activities, and usually it is played in a groups of children. The idea of ​​dolanan anak was emerged from Ki Hadjar Dewantara. According to Dewantara, the basic education for children in Java is sastra and gendhing. Sastra refers to literature to gain children’s knowledge, while gendhing refers to Javanese music (gamelan). Dolanan anak is the effective activity in order to understand about sastra and gendhing, because it gives pleasure to children in learning sastra and gendhing while playing with their peers. Dewantara’s idea of dolanan anak was influenced by Kodaly philosophy of music education. Dolanan anak is used as an effort to give children the right to have an opportunity to access music. This is a qualitative research which purposing to describe the implementation of Kodaly method in Javanese dolanan anak. The data was collected from the observation and literature study. The results of this study are expected to giving a recommendation for public school in Indonesia using dolanan anak as an activity in learning music. Dolanan anak is not merely children's games, but it is the core of education and music learning based on children own culture. Keyword: Dolanan anak, Kodaly, Music Education
Tue 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Embrace the Music and Nurture the Learner: Developing A Kodály Music Curriculum For Your Locale

Dr. Jerry JaccardOld Courthouse Auditorium

Although Zoltán Kodály himself did not write a “method,” he did write and-or compose curriculum materials for Hungarian music education. Kodály’s other writings clearly advocate for teachers within other cultures to customize curricula to their specific circumstances. His and Béla Bartók’s and their many assistants’ folksong research resulted in important discoveries for school and studio music teachers: 1) There are direct relationship among children’s singing games, authentic folksong, and classical music forms and styles; 2) These relationships exist first at the village, then regional, then national and international levels; 3) Such relationships can and should form the curriculum framework for what, how, and when music teachers help learners develop musical mastery; and 4) A well-constructed music curriculum reveals those relationships and how learning may flow efficiently because of them. This practical session will begin with Kodály’s famous instructions to his also famous student, composer-conductor Lajos Bárdos: “Proceed with a profound understanding of the material upon which all else may be based.” Using Kodály’s groundbreaking 1943 School Song Collection as a model of what he told Bárdos, we will explore ways teachers new to or already experienced in the Kodály Concept of Music Education can customize their teaching materials and practices to local and national cultures, including pluralistic ones. These ways will take into account the following principles Kodály and his many associates applied from Guido, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Piaget and modern cognitive and psycholinguistic science: •How oracy-aurality-literacy work together •Experience-based teaching and learning •Child-developmental sequencing •Simultaneously developing the individual and the group •The role of intuition and metacognition and how to encourage their development •Stages of teaching expertise and their effect on curriculum refinement •Preserving the natural musicality of childhood and indigenous culture In keeping with the aim implied in the title of equipping teachers with a toolbox to guide their own curriculum development, this session will include audio-visual clips, audio recordings, and photocopied handouts for participants only.
Tue 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Music in Kindy

Kerryn VezosTubau

Young children love to move- jump, wriggle, roll, balance, and they also love to sing. Kerryn has worked with kindy age children for over 20 years, and has a passion for ensuring all children can access music in ways that are fun, and meaningful to them. In 'Music in Kindy', Kerryn shares her favourite music and movement pieces for children aged 3-5 years old, along with some fun resources and hands on activities.
Tue 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Sounds & Movements of Our Lands: Choral Music of Malaysia!

Dr. Tracy WongOld Courthouse Function Room

In the last decade, choral educators and conductors have made efforts to include more multicultural choral music in classrooms and performances to reflect and celebrate the diverse global community. However, the choral music of Malaysia is still lacking in the current repertoire offerings both at international symposiums and in concert programming due to the lack of information needed to explore this rich musical heritage. With the help of singers from Young Choral Academy Malaysia, this workshop focuses on the unique folk-inspired choral repertoire of Malaysia for treble choirs that explores a variety of choral timbres and performance styles incorporating movement and vocal exploration. We will include a brief history of folk-inspired choral repertoire and uncover the Malaysian concept of voice play as well as the role of movement in the performance of the music. The presenter will also suggest appropriate vocal stylings suitable for this music through healthy vocal techniques. This workshop also highlights the successful reception of “Wau Bulan” (a popular Malaysian folksong arranged for choirs by the presenter, published under Cypress Choral Publication) among North American choral educators and conductors. We will explore the pedagogical applications of this piece as well as the collaborative efforts that have been taken to address various rehearsal and performance challenges faced by non-Malaysian educators and choirs. The live demonstrations will be complemented with musical excerpts which will be projected on slides. The audience will be invited to sing and move in this session, and will be provided handouts containing a list of resources (publishers, noted recordings, repertoire, noted composers, diction and International Phonetic Alphabet guide) and excerpts of the music. This presentation will allow greater access for educators and conductors to Malaysian choral music for treble choirs, appropriateness in vocal performance and ultimately provide a resource for choral educators and conductors to confidently include repertoire from Malaysia into concert programming.
Tue 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

Community Service: Learning to Develop Culturally Relevant Curriculum

Johnathon GoulterKabu Room

1. Theoretical / Pedagogical background of the paper Kodaly ventured into the Hungarian countryside to seek out Hungarian music that he could use to teach Hungarian children. The premise being that we learn music best when we learn it from our mother tongue. In the Australian context music is taught in English, a language for many is not their mother tongue, which may impact their ability to engage and learn in the music classroom. 2. Aim / Focus of the work/research reported This paper will present a preliminary report on a research project that was undertaken in an independent all girls high school with a 40% Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander student population in Northern Queensland Australia. The paper will describe the context of the research and the importance of engaging with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community groups in order to develop a culturally relevant curriculum in such a context. It will also outline the process taken and put forth a guide regarding building community relationships and development of a culturally relevant curriculum. 3. Methodology /Approach of the work The researcher two recognised models, an action research model and a service learning model. Both methods have been used successfully working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. A further approach to the research was a reflection process that guided the researcher in documentation of their thoughts and experiences regarding field work. 4. Results and/or Summary of the main ideas Preliminary analysis of data has highlighted some practical implications around working in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups. This paper will refer to emerging ideas related to developing a practical framework for teachers to increase their knowledge in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander music, ceremonies, and customs that are transferable to appropriately designing and delivering culturally relevant and culturally sensitive musical content in accordance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and traditions. Thus, increasing engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in classroom music as well as deepening teachers' musical skills. Overall, this develops a culture of understanding and inclusiveness in students, staff, and school community. 5. Conclusions and Implications This research endeavours to raise teachers’ awareness of the effects of culturally relevant curriculum and how they are able to develop relationships in the community to authentically develop and deliver culturally relevant curriculum in multicultural music class rooms.
Tue 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

More Kodály Equals Happier Adolescents? – A Pilot Study Exploring How Kodály-Inspired Musical Activity Nurtures Young People in Our Modern Era.

Rosalie ScottNipah Room

Kodály-inspired practitioners are often unaware of the benefits of their practice outside the music classroom. Many teachers struggle to advocate for adequate time given to their programs in this new era where organisational and positive psychology outcomes are sought after. This paper explores the preliminary findings of a six-month pilot study into the benefits of extra Kodály-inspired musical activity on a group of adolescent students in an Anglican boys’ school in Western Australia. The study was inspired by the research of Olson, E. (2000) into the effects of extra Kodály-based music instruction on first grade American students, and the literature review by Goopy, J. (2013), which suggested a need for further research into this area for Secondary School students. Thus, the purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effect that an extra 30 minutes of Kodály-inspired musical activity had on a group of young adolescents. One Year 7 class (n=25) and one Year 8 class (n=25) received two extra 15-minute sessions of musical activity per week involving their pastoral care teacher, for the second half of their academic year. Permission was given by parents for the students to be pre-tested and post- tested on the following modern expressions of student wellbeing: Perseverance, Optimism & Connectedness (Kern, M.L. et al 2015), Thriving (Porath, C. et al. 2011), and the leadership sub-dimensions of Inspirational Communication, Intellectual Stimulation, Supportive Leadership, and Personal Recognition (Rafferty & Griffin 2004). Anecdotal evidence was also collected from the students and pastoral care teachers involved in the study. This paper will discuss the preliminary findings of the research, anecdotal ideas from the students and teachers along with several case-studies from the group. Preliminary analysis of the data from the pilot study indicates that there were significant positive differences between the time one and time two responses presenting ideas for further research into the benefits for adolescents of Kodály-based music and offering a framework for future exploration. By exploring the way in which the Kodály philosophy nurtures young people to thrive at their best, teachers can advocate for their work in this era of modern education outcomes.
Tue 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

Musicianship with – 音程游戏 (此课程将以华语呈现) Interval Games * This session will be presented in Mandarin.

Chian RuiyiOld Courthouse Function Room

Tue 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

Embracing Advocacy in Your Context: Nurturing the Kodály Philosophy Between Students, Parents, Colleagues and the Broader Community

Tess LairdOld Courthouse Auditorium

Advocacy is a term which implies major action, including lobbying, campaigning and public speaking, in order to influence decisions in political or economic spheres. Many music educators feel advocacy to this degree goes beyond their influence or capabilities. However, there are many small things that can be done at the grass roots level to advocate for more support, be it more recognition, resources, and promotion of music education within your school. While there are opportunities in nearly every aspect of our professional lives to advocate for quality music education, perhaps the most effective form of advocacy is in encouraging those around us to become more vocal on our behalf. Our students and parents can be our most powerful advocates, and the greater the numbers supporting our programmes, the greater our efficacy when negotiating for what we need in order to effectively maintain momentum. Kodaly advocated for music education which was child centred, sequential and developmental – using the voice as the primary instrument (because it is easily accessible to all), folk and art music repertoire of the highest quality, and teaching literacy with the overarching goal of having a society of people sensitive to their cultural roots and artistically literate. The biggest criticisms of this philosophy stem from poor or limited experiences, and misconceptions based on a lack of understanding about the approach. This workshop will explore the different ways in which a culture of music education can be strengthened in schools, including repertoire and activities that can be shared between students, parents, staff and the broader community. The Australian National Curriculum promotes the initiation of links to local musicians, as well as a consideration of the ways in which musical skills are transferred into the real world. These are powerful tools for advocacy, along with celebrating successes, which generates continual growth and renewal. Adhering to Kodȧly’s philosophy of ensuring that music making is a joy for students is a key contributor in encouraging others to value what we do, and to expand their awareness of the importance of music education.
Tue 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

Mini Men: Moves and Grooves

Rebecca ThomasTubau

Middle School is a time of transition, growth, discovery and identity formation and music education plays a crucial role in the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of students. Boys (mini men) benefit from specific teaching strategies that engage and connect their bodies and minds, and they enjoy the challenge and rigour of part work, games and coordination activities. This interactive workshop explores kinaesthetic learning activities that feature in a middle school music program in an all-boys school in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be encouraged to explore how Kodály staples such as hand signs, tone ladders, body contouring, pitch contouring, finger staff drills, body ostinatos, beat keeping, rhythmic part work, body percussion, instrumental work and games can expand the physical (fine and gross motor) skills and mental capabilities of young men … and women! Practical examples and takeaways will be provided that link these essential music activities with sport and popular culture references to keep students engaged, challenged, and hungry for more. Throughout the last 2 years, these routine classroom activities have evolved into a Body Percussion Battle that excites and extends Year 7 classes (12 year-olds) to work as a band/team and perform their pieces in a supportive and competitive environment. Using repetition, sequencing, canons, ostinatos, solos, movement and body percussion, plus one ordinary yet amusing everyday ‘instrument’ (eg. paper, water bottle, desk bell, tennis ball, kitchen tongs, lunch box), classes work together to prepare a visually and aurally entertaining 2-3 minute performance. Come along and be a part of the collaborative improvisation and composition phase, understand how students create, improve, revise, edit, interpret notation and sounds, and be a part of the fun of creating a class groove.
Tue 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Emerging Music Teachers Network

Carla TrottKabu Room

Globally, early-career teachers face a multitude of challenges in their first few years of teaching. In Australia, almost half of teachers leaving the profession within the first five years of working which has led to an ageing teaching population (Singal, 2017). Research from Ballantyne (Ballantyne, 2007), Barrett and Harrison (Ballantyne, et al., 2007) identifies ‘Praxis Shock’ as one of the possible causes of high teacher attrition rates, defining praxis shock as the disconnect that teachers experience from their superficial, theory-based education degrees and the practical nature and expectations of the profession. It has been found that guidance from experienced mentors and access to expert advice from practicing teachers are important keys to mitigating the impact of praxis shock. However, in Queensland, Australia, access to mentors can be difficult, with music teachers often feeling isolated due to the nature of the role. Sometimes they will be the only subject-specific teacher within their school, or, because of the large state, the only one in their entire community, with long distances between neighbouring schools and towns, with little or no opportunities to connect with other early-career and veteran music teachers. Emma Ritchie and Carla Trott were both lucky to have had access to excellent mentors and music teaching communities during their initial years of teaching, and established the Emerging Music Teachers Network (EMTN) in 2015 with the goal of helping other early- career teachers have similar access to mentors and supportive networks. They developed the EMTN based on their own pre-service teacher training, beginning years of teaching and relevant literature. In the regular EMTN meetings, all of which were live-streamed, participants have connected with expert presenters and experienced mentors, engaged in discussions about relevant topics and were provided with practical ideas and resources for immediate use in the classroom. As a result, the network has grown to include over 400 music teachers from across the globe, coming from a range of backgrounds and experience levels. The meetings have continued to be held across Australia and participants have benefitted from being able to connect with and support like-minded educators. The community has been instrumental in developing a culture of communication and sharing amongst music teachers and, most importantly, provided the skills to pre-service, graduate and early-career music teachers so that they feel confident and successful in the classroom. In this presentation, Carla and Emma will outline the development of the network, the success of the initiative and the impact the meetings have had on early-career music teachers.
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Nurturing the Future: The Provision and Effectiveness of Australian Pre-Service Primary Teacher Music Education Programs

Jason BoronNipah Room

Zoltán Kodály believed that music is essential for the holistic development of the child. He advocated that quality music education should be delivered by highly qualified music educators. Only the best was good enough for students, and in particular for early childhood and primary school music education. The past decade has seen a rise in the advocacy of music education with emphasis placed on extra-musical benefits for children. Currently in Australia, new strategies around the country are being developed to advance music education. Whilst new policy is underpinned by the extra musical benefits of music for children, little attention has been given to initial teacher education. This paper will review research evaluating the provision and effectiveness of primary music teacher education programs. An examination of Australian primary music teacher education courses at university level will be included, as well as alternate pathways provided by non-tertiary education providers. Attention will be given to the learning experiences offered in initial teacher education, as well as the skills, knowledge and attributes teachers need in order to be effective music educators. The examination will reveal the characteristics of effective primary teacher educator programs. Findings from this paper will be relevant to music teacher educators, school administrators, teacher mentors and music educators working in schools. Gaps in the literature will be highlighted and suggestions made for future doctoral research in the area of primary music teacher education.
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

Menjelajahi Dunia Burung Dengan Lagu * Kertas penyelidikan ini akan dibentangkan dalam Bahasa Melayu. Exploring the World of Birds Through Song * This paper will be presented in Malay.

Dr. Chong Pek LinTubau

Burung telah mengilhamkan ratusan lagu rakyat dan karya instrumental di seluruh dunia. Terdapat melodi yang meniru bunyi burung, lirik yang memuji keindahan burung atau menggambarkan ciri-cirinya. Sesi ini akan menerokai lagu rakyat dan sebuah karya klasik bertemakan pelbagai burung. Para peserta akan diperkenalkan dengan melodi lagu menggunakan teknik Kodaly seperti tonic solfa, isyarat tangan dan nama irama, sambil menghayati ciri-ciri burung spesifik. Disamping itu, mereka dapat menghayati kebudayaan beberapa kumpulan etnik minoriti. Ilun Kuai dan Kuai Maping merupakan dua buah lagu kumpulan etnik Kenyah dari Borneo dengan lirik menceritakan Burung Kuang Raya (Greater Argus Pheasant atau Ruai dalam Bahasa Iban). Burung ini (salah satu species terancam) diburu untuk bulu cantik yang digunakan untuk perhiasan kostium. Lagu Ilun Kuai mempunyai set ton so-pentatonik yang amat sesuai digunakan di sekolah rendah untuk latihan solfa dan deskan tradisional mudah yang senang dipelajari untuk latihan nyanyian dua lapisan suara. Lirik kedua-dua lagu, disertai aksi meniru gerakan burung dapat mencetuskan perbincangan mengenai pemuliharaan alam sekitar dan binatang terlindung. Dari pedalaman Borneo, kami berpindah ke pedalaman negara Cina, untuk menghayati lagu kumpulan etnik minoriti Bonan Murai atas pokok plum. Lirik lagu membayangkan kepercayaan bahawa kemunculan burung di luar pintu rumah membawa tuah. Kehidupan yang berfokus kepada memburu terbayang dalam lagu Kepulangan Angsa Liar dari kumpulan etnik minoriti Ewenki (yang hidup di pedalaman negeri Cina dan negara Rusia). Kedua-dua lagu ini mempunyai set ton la-pentatonik tetapi berbeza dari segi pola irama dan meter. Kemudian, kami berpindah pula ke Austria untuk contoh tunggal dalam skel major, Kukuck (Burung Cuckoo). Selain meniru bunyi burung cuckoo, ciri lain yang menarik ialah irama tarian landler yang rancak. Akhirnya peserta akan dibimbing menghayati karya The Lark ascending (Burung Lark Menaik) sebuah karya instrumental oleh Ralph Vaughan Williams. Peserta akan dibimbing menyanyi tema utama pentatonik yang dimainkan oleh solo violin.
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

Piano Masterclass

Anikó NovákOld Courthouse Auditorium

Anikó Novák received her degree in piano at the Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music Budapest in 1994. Her teachers were Gyöngyi Keveházi, György Nádor, Mihály Bächer, Ferenc Rados and Sándor Falvai. She participated in the masterclasses led by András Schiff and György Sebők. In 1989 she won the Best Accompanist Prize at the International Cello Competition in Varna. In 1993 she received the Best Pianist Prize of the Year at the Liszt Academy. Since 1995 she has been the regular accompanist and instrumental soloist of the Hungarian Radio Children’s Choir. She frequently makes recordings with the choir. Her sonata CD with Zsolt Fejervari appeared in 1996 . She has given solo and chamber concerts in most European countries, in the USA, Japan, and Taiwan. In 2001 she was the first Hungarian to give a recital in the Young Talents concert series at the Kennedy Center, Washington DC. Since 2004 she has been a teacher of the Teacher Training Faculty of the Liszt Academy Budapest and also, from 2009, has been a professor of the International Kodaly Institute in Kecskemet. At the 2016 Summer Kodaly Seminar in Kecskemet she and her college Katalin Körtvési launched a new Piano Pedagogy Course called ZeneZen. Since the first ZeneZen Course they have held Master Classes and Workshops in numerous institutes including the Hungarian Academy of Rome, the Sichuan University, Chengdu (China), the 23rd International Kodaly Symposium, Camrose (Canada), the Elleri Music School, Tartu (Estonia), the Helsinki and the Lahti Conservatories (Finland) and the Royal Conservatoire, Den Haag (The Netherlands).
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

运用“创新教具”辅助五线谱教学和 “移动dol”(relative solfa)理念的推广 (此工作坊将以华语呈现) Using Innovative Teaching Tools to Assist in the Teaching of Staff Notation and the Promotion of the Concept of “Movable-do” (Relative Solfa) * This paper will be presented in Mandarin.

Honglai Liang 梁洪来Kerangas

背景介绍: 中国的大部分中小学音乐课堂使用“简谱”(数字谱)或“简谱”与五线谱相结合,五线谱的使用并不是非常广泛。作者创造、研制了一系列能够辅助五线谱教学,特别是帮助音乐教师和学生理解“移动dol”理念的教学、学习用具,并已经进行生产、销售,获得广大教师和学生好评。 研究目标: 为在中国推广五线谱教学提供具体方法和实例,促进五线谱教学和“移动dol”理念在中国的推广。 研究方法: 实践研究、案例研究。 本文提供具体案例,阐明如何根据中国音乐教学的实际情况,使用正确的方法,在中小学推广五线谱教学和“移动dol”理念。 主要观点: 如果运用正确的方法,五线谱教学是可以在中国的中小学推广的。五线谱教学有利于提高学生音准和音乐读、写水平。 主要结论: 本课题为在中国推广“移动dol”理念,提供了具有可操作性的具体方法,为在中国传播柯达伊音乐教学理念打下了良好基础。
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

运用柯大宜音乐教学法于钢琴功能性技能的启蒙教学 (此论文将以华语呈现 ) Apply Kodaly Method to Teach Piano Functional Technique for Young Beginners * This paper will be presented in Mandarin

Prof. Fung-Ching Cheng 鄭方靖Old Courthouse Function Room

本工作坊旨在與參與者分享運用柯大宜教學法教導初學的幼兒鋼琴的功能性 技能之學理觀念,以及實務操作的策略。由於一般人大多認為柯大宜音樂教學 法只對歌唱或合唱教學非常有效,少有人肯定這個教學法在樂器教學上的效益 。尤其亞洲的鋼琴教師們大多採用歐洲或美國系列的鋼琴教材,照本宣科地按 照教本一頁一頁地教,無法靈活運用。殊不知這些教本中的音樂素材幾乎皆不 是亞洲孩子們所熟悉的在地音樂,運用起來其實與教本原來的編輯精神與目標 是有差距的。再者,現今的流行音樂大行其道,許多流行音樂人並無受過正式 的音樂訓練, 卻比音樂科班的學生更能運用和聲、移調彈奏、或即興彈奏, 真是令人驚異。這些運用和聲、移調彈奏、或即興彈奏,在鋼琴教育中稱之為 功能性技能 ( functional skill)。 柯大宜音樂教學法的中,歌唱、首調唱名及民謠的運用是重要特質。本人在 台灣運用柯大宜音樂教學法這些要則於鋼琴的啟蒙教學上已有二十餘載,發現 孩子們的功能性技能相對上強於一班學習鋼琴的孩子。故而本人將於工作坊中 說明相關的教學策略、分享現成的音樂素材、演示教學活動。期待有更多教師 了解如何運用柯大宜教學法於鋼琴教學、善用在地音樂於鋼秦教學,讓更多學 鋼琴的孩子學到靈活的功能性技能。
Tue 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

The Teacher Concept of Zoltán Kodály

Zsuzsanna PolyákNipah Room

It is well-known that good music teachers play an integral role in the realisation of Zoltán Kodály’s ideas. He himself stated repeatedly: “that only the best teachers could produce results.” Music teachers failing to meet Kodály’s expectations has been a recurring theme in public debates about the Kodály Concept, some even claimed that the fault in his programme lies in his unattainable requirements of teachers: “a system that can only work in the hands of prophets cannot be used generally” (Erika Heller Turmezey, 1996). While there have been essays and papers on Kodály’s views on teachers, a systematic analysis of his writings from this aspect are yet to be carried out. Using qualitative content analysis and grounded theory method, this study aims to identify the main themes within Kodály’s references to teachers – in regards to the teachers’ responsibilities, attitudes, required skills, training, and their roles in the educational process and in Kodály’s vision that was outlined in Children’s choirs. The research is currently in progress. It includes the entire corpus of Kodály’s writings published in the three volumes of Visszatekintés [Reminiscences], but excludes his letters, notes and other fragments. Ideologies of the late 19th -early 20th century reform pedagogy/progressive education movements serve as a conceptual framework for the observations. Kodály himself was influenced by these life, social and educational reform programmes. Also, discourses in contemporary educational reform approaches seem to build upon many ideas of the reform movements of the early 20th century. Comparing Kodály’s views on music educators to the teacher concepts of the different reform/progressive educational ideologies, as well as to their re-appearance in the recommended music teaching paradigms of today, may help to identify the roles and requirements of the “Kodály teacher” (a term often used but never well-defined) in the 21st century.
Tue 4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

柯达伊教学法在中国高等师范院校 视唱练耳教学中的实践价值 (此论文将以华语呈现) The Theoretical Significance and Practical Value of Kodály’s Teaching Method in Solfege Teaching in Chinese Normal Universities * This paper will be presented in Mandarin.

Hongyan ChenKabu Room

柯达伊教学法是世界三大音乐教学法之一,其科学、完善且具有深刻哲学思想的 音乐教育体系被全球音乐教育界广泛应用。视唱练耳不仅是柯达伊教学体系中的核心课程, 同样也在中国高等师范院校音乐教学中担任着不可替代的重要角色。本论文从柯达伊教学法 的优秀教育理念和宗旨入手,通过对柯达伊教学法在中国高师视唱练耳教学具体运用的优势 和劣势进行深入分析,进一步论证在中国高等师范院校推行柯达伊教学法的理论意义和实践 价值,旨在更好的促进高师视唱练耳教学的借鉴、融合与创新,全面提高视唱练耳教学质量 和水平。
Tue 4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

Wednesday 7 Aug 2019

10:30 am – 1:00 pm SCV Morning Session

Cultural Show (30 mins per session)

Auditorium

10:30am, 11:30am, 12:30pm
Wed 10:30 am – 1:00 pm

Indonesian Songs (30 mins per session)

Tommyanto KandisaputraBidayuh Longhouse

10:30am, 11:15am, 12:15pm
Wed 10:30 am – 1:00 pm

Philippine Songs (30 min per session)

Maria Theresa Vizconde-Roldan & Jude Bautista RoldanIban Longhouse

10:30am, 11:15am, 12:15pm
Wed 10:30 am – 1:00 pm

Games from the Southeast Asian Region (30 mins per session)

Kymberly Chong & Kathleen RosheneLake Pavilion

10:30am, 11:15am, 12:15pm
Wed 10:30 am – 1:00 pm

Peranakan Ditties & Rhymes (30 mins per session)

Chi Hoe Mak & Chian RuiyiMelanau Tall House

10:30am, 11:15am, 12:15pm
Wed 10:30 am – 1:00 pm

1:30 pm – 4:30 pm SCV Afternoon Session

1:30 pm – 3:30 pm Folk Song Forum

Folk Song Forum -Chaired by Dr. Jerry Jaccard (USA), Dr. Shinji Inagi (Japan)

Invited Guests – Dr. Chong Pek Lin (Malaysia), Tommyanto Kandisaputra (Indonesia), Maria Theresa Vizconde-Roldan (Phillipines), Dr. Pawasut Jodi Piriyapongrat (Thailand)}Auditorium

Wed 1:30 pm – 3:30 pm

2:30 pm – 4:30 pm

Dances from Borneo

Tutors from SCVPersada Alam

2:30pm, 3:15pm, 4:00pm
Wed 2:30 pm – 4:30 pm

Ethnic Instruments from Borneo (30 mins per session)

Tutors from SCVMusic House Gallery

2:30pm, 3:15pm, 4:00pm
Wed 2:30 pm – 4:30 pm

Peranakan Ditties & Rhymes (30 mins per session)

Chi Hoe Mak & Chian RuiyiMelanau Tall House

2:30pm, 3:15pm
Wed 2:30 pm – 4:30 pm

Songs and Games of Aotearoa New Zealand (30 mins per session)

Megan FlintLake Pavilion

2:30pm, 3:15pm, 4:00pm
Wed 2:30 pm – 4:30 pm

4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

A Glance on Thai Traditional Music, Folk Music and Dance

Dr. Pawasut Jodi PiriyapongratBidayuh Longhouse

Wed 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Cultural Show

Auditorium

Wed 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Malaysian Folk Songs

Dr. Tracy WongIban Longhouse

Wed 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Philippine Songs

Maria Theresa Vizconde-Roldan & Jude Bautista RoldanMelanau Tall House

Wed 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Thursday 8 Aug 2019

10:00 am – 12:00 pm Day 4 Morning Session

10:00 am – 10:30 am

“Kodály has a Home in Greece” Kodály Conservatory 1989 – 2019

Michail (Michalis) PatseasKabu Room

Kodály Conservatory and Greek Kodály Institute was founded 30 years ago. Its inauguration took place during the “9th International Kodály Symposium” in Athens, in August 1989. It functions under the auspices of Madame Sarolta Peczely-Kodály. It is based in Halandri, a northern suburb of Athens, the capital of Greece. It has departments covering most of the Classical music instruments, singing, music theory and composition. It provides diplomas certified and recognized by the Greek state for all of them. Beside them it has departments for Old music, Popular music, Traditional Greek music, Music theatre as well as Music Therapy and Special Education. Greek Kodály Institute is a special department of the Conservatory offering professional training in Kodály’s Music Pedagogical Method and in Choir Conducting. Finally, Kodály Conservatory is proud of its musical ensembles, Orchestras, Mixed and Children’s Choirs. The paper will follow the methodology of Historic Musicology. It will be accompanied by photos and short videos. The basic aim will be to illustrate the continuous efforts of the Greek colleagues to adapt Kodály concept to the Greek reality providing to the international public another successful example of the adaptation. Kodály Conservatory has accomplished many things during the thirty years of its existence: It boasts for its alumni: more than a hundred of them are important music professionals in various subjects, including some famous opera singers, pianists and conductors. Tens of them teach in Conservatories, State Music High-schools, and general schools. Many continue their studies in Music Universities around the world. It plays an important role in popularizing Hungarian Art Music in Greece, alone or in collaboration with other Greek Institutions like the Athens State Orchestra, the National Opera of Athens and the National Radio Orchestra: Kodály (Psalmus Hungaricus, Peacock Variations, Dances of Galánta), Liszt (Dante Symphony, Piano Concertos), Bartók (Viola Concerto) as well as many Choral and Chamber music works of many contemporary Hungarian composers.
Thu 10:00 am – 10:30 am

Kodaly into the Future: Music Builds Innovation Capability Across Your School

Kai-Stefanie LorimerNipah Room

In 2021, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) will assess creative thinking in the PISA innovative domain test, along with English, Mathematics and Science. Music educators understand the importance of nurturing critical and creative thinking but Kodaly practitioners are rooted in a philosophy which gives rise to highly structured pedagogy, carefully sequenced to ensure learners experience success at every step of development. Will creativity flourish in such a ‘controlled’ environment? Recent research into how experienced Australian teachers understand human creativity, evidenced a pervasive lack of understanding of the academic environments conducive to innovation and the cognitive strategies teachers may employ to develop student creativity. Misunderstandings were common as to the differences between spontaneous originality and true innovation, around the domain-specificity of creativity, around the extent to which creativity innately exists and the extent to which pedagogical choices have the power to influence all of the above. As Kodaly music pedagogues, we have much to offer in creativity education; we can potentially lead the way in empowering teachers and students to build creative capabilities across domains. Music education, rooted in Kodaly’s vision, should lead the way into the future by showcasing effective, intentional teaching for transferable skills in critical and creative working and thinking. This presentation maps two schools’ journeys towards embedding critical and creative thinking and working across the curriculum; beginning with the survey of teacher understandings, the implications the results held, the inspiration and solutions found in the Kodaly approach to music education and the resultant whole school approach towards embedding this key capability led by the Heads of Curriculum and the Music Specialist.
Thu 10:00 am – 10:30 am

10:00 am – 10:50 am

Let’s Play!: A Hands-on Exploration of Spontaneous Play in Vocal Based Activities

Peter ShanhunKerangas

The Kodály Concept of Music Education is much more than an elegant compilation of tools and tricks. Central to Kodály’s concept was that students should actively engage in music making, that they should sing, move and experience first-hand the treasures that music holds. As Dobszay said, we ‘…work with students to reach the heart of music so that music reaches the heart of the pupil.’ (1970). Forrai attests that creative play has an impact on musical development, as well as on extra-musical areas such as increased enjoyment, expressing feelings, confidence, and strengthened relationships and sense of community (1995). Indeed, there is currently an increased interest in the importance of creativity, innovation and collaboration as key ‘21st century’ skills. Once students begin to progress in their training however, this interactivity and spontaneous creativity often has to compete with technical skill and intellectual knowledge for a place in the curriculum. This workshop explores the role and benefits of including spontaneous creative elements in a variety of contexts. This includes not only vocal improvisation, but also a broader array of possibilities such as not knowing who the new leader will be in a game; using framed improvisation to reinforce a given style or giving performers control over certain sound elements such as pitch, rhythm or timbre in contemporary music. Despite their differences, a common creative thread runs through each of these activities. This workshop is intended to provide a brief hands-on overview of how ‘creative singing’ can be used in a variety of contexts such as early childhood, primary and elementary classroom, and choral settings. It will provide practical examples of a range of activities, explore how they can be used to enhance a wholistic music education, and encourage practitioners to reflect on their own practice.
Thu 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Musicianship – Complex Metre and Irregular Rhythm

Josephine AngTubau

Thu 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Understanding Chinese Phonology through Singing Games

Yu-Chuan Yao, Prof. Jessie Hsiao-Shien Chen-Old Courthouse Function Room

Though grammatically quite simple, the emphasis in Chinese language is placed on the exact pitch. Therefore, a different pitch may mean different words or meanings in Chinese. Melody is also an important dominant element. Chinese is usually spoken in the interval range of fifths, and the intonation of Mandarin can imply intervals and melodies. The different tones in Mandarin cause the intervals of Ci (a term, words) – most often, major 2nd, minor 3rd, and perfect 4th. In a Chinese song if a singer tries to change a pitch in a song, it may also change the tones of the spoken words and thereby cause different meanings in the lyrics. A good lyric must match its tones with its melody; unsuitable intervals in a melody can cause misunderstanding. For example, the pronunciation of the word “ma” can mean “mother, hemp, horse or scold” depending on selection among four different tones. In the workshop, the clinicians will guide the participants to learn some Chinese vocabulary. In addition, participants can utilize the vocabulary to compose a short piece of melody.
Thu 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Using Pop Music

Dr. Alec SchumackerOld Courthouse Auditorium

For better or worse, popular music is our students ‘native tongue.’ As teachers we should capitalize on this music and use it to bolster our students’ musical skills. This interactive session will offer solfege-based techniques and tricks that use popular music to help build and reinforce aural and singing abilities.
Thu 10:00 am – 10:50 am

11:00 am – 11:30 am

Music, Education and the Brain How Neuroscience Fits (or Doesn’t Fit) in the New Era Kodály Classroom

Sean P. BreenNipah Room

This presentation highlights current research into the neuroscience of music, how the research connects to the Kodály methodology, and how this research can be of value to Kodály educators in the selection and appraisal of teaching materials and teaching techniques. Though most educators express an interest in current brain research, many are discouraged when they discover that the information is misrepresented, over-simplified, or not readily adaptable to the music classroom. It is vital that music educators become knowledgeable about methods and strategies that teachers may employ to help determine the value of recent research and how it may affect our teaching. Of equal importance is an appreciation of how our collective teaching knowledge has the power to shed real-world light on clinical research. Utilizing engaging audio-video materials, this presentation presents current, relevant research findings in a concise, connected, and clear manner. This presentation highlights current research into the neuroscience of music education, how this research relates to Kodály methodology, and if this research can, or cannot, be of value to Kodály educators in the selection and appraisal of teaching materials and teaching techniques. A majority of music educators expresses an interest in current brain research, however, many become discouraged when they realize that the research is misrepresented, over-simplified, or not readily adaptable to the music classroom. It is vital that Kodály music educators actively investigate and assess research, utilizing proven methods and strategies, in determining the value of brain research. Of equal importance is a renewed appreciation of our collective teaching knowledge and how it has the power to provide real-world context for clinical research. Utilizing engaging audio-video materials, this presentation presents current, relevant research findings in a concise, connected, and clear manner.
Thu 11:00 am – 11:30 am

Navigating the Application of the Kodály Concept in the Australian Context

Peter ShanhunKabu Room

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and reflect upon issues that impact the application of the Kodály Concept in the unique Australian context. Kodály never intended the ‘Hungarian’ way to be applied as a cookie-cutter approach without adaptation for the specific context of each nation. In Australia, this raises some issues. In order to appreciate these, some understanding of our history is required. When thinking of Australian folk music, most immediately think of the strong Anglo-Irish tradition adapted in the form of bush ballads. These are an important part of Australia’s cultural heritage, but do they reflect contemporary reality? Australia does not only ‘stand in the gap between East and West’, but increasingly (perhaps like Malaysia) is a melting pot of different cultures. The complexities and achievements of the cultures of Australia’s First Peoples have increasing been acknowledged, however, Australia has had a troubled history since first contact. Issues such as conflict, displacement of peoples, stolen generations and forced assimilation are not only relegated to the distant past, but have a real and living impact on many today. What ramifications does all this have for teacher training and Music Education? Can we maintain that European high culture, originating 14000 km away, should be the measuring stick for 'valuable art'? How do we choose a stylistic focus to teach the masses, without the risk of alienating parts of the population? Should we include bush ballads, traditional or contemporary First Nations music or music from surrounding cultures? What do we aspire to teach and what is our role as Music educators?   While other perspectives are valid, these big questions will be approached primarily from the perspective of Music Educators in this paper. Some suggestions may be put forward, and ramifications for Music Education in Australia and beyond addressed, however, the main purpose of the paper is not to provide solutions, but to highlight issues that impact the continuing journey of developing a mature, authentic Australian adaptation of Kodály pedagogy.
Thu 11:00 am – 11:30 am

11:00 am – 11:50 am

“Shoga”, A Learning Method of Japanese Traditional Music: Experiencing the Drum part of Festive Lion Dance, “Edo Kotobuki-Jishi”

Atsuko OmiOld Courthouse Function Room

The key points of Kodaly concept are as follows: 1) music for everyone 2) importance of singing 3) from musical mother tongue to art music 4) musical literacy should be obtained by everyone 5) important role of school music education. Then, according to the Kodaly concept, where should be the instrumental music in folk tradition positioned? How to relate singing and musical instruments in music education in Kodaly approach? The answer is simple, for us Japanese. Because learning Japanese traditional music begins with singing! The purpose of this workshop is for the participants to appreciate the performance of the Japanese festive lion dance “Edo Kotobuki-Jishi”, and to experience the actual Japanese drum performing through “Shoga”, which is proper learning methods of instruments in traditional Japanese music. Lion (imaginary creature) dance is a folk tradition, expressing hopes of people's health and happiness, wide spreading throughout Japan, with rich regional variations. “Shoga” is a kind of solmization, of which syllables are unique to each instrument, indicating not only the rhythm and melody, but also how to play, and how to express the music, that is to say, melody patterns, tone color. The contents of this workshop consists of three parts. 1) I define and introduce real examples of “Shoga”, e.g. “Ten tr-re tsu-ku-tsu-ku, ten su-ke- ten” (drum), “Chi-chan-cha-cha-chi-ki, chi-cha-chan-cha-cha-chi-ki.” (bell), “Chi-hyai-hyai- to-ro, to-hyu-hya” (Shinobue, bamboo flute). 2) I explain the origin and significance of “Edo Kotobuki-Jishi”, and the construction of dance and music. After that I introduce the instruments of accompaniment music of dance, and the “Shoga” of each instrument; drum, Kane (Bell), and Shinobue (bamboo flute). 3) I teach “Shoga” ‘s singing of the drum part from a passage of “Edo Kotobuki-Jishi”. After that I teach an actual drum performing. The method of this workshop is oral teaching. Participants just listen to the Shoga”with their ears, and imitate. I also introduce the score of “Shoga” for the visual aid of to pronounce the syllables, in order to memorize the syllables. Next, we practice the music by body percussion. After that they perform real drum one by one. Others always sing “Shoga” with body percussion. (This is a kind of Koday approach.) Finally we enjoy emsemble, with othe instruments: Kane (bell) and Shinobue (bamboo flute), and Lion dance, as well! “Shoga” is good tool to feel and think about the music style of Japanese instrumental music without real instruments. The music teachers in foreign countries can teach Japanese traditional music by utilizing this aural method of “Shoga”.
Thu 11:00 am – 11:50 am

CHOIR IS LISTENING! Improvisation, Choral Games and Movement for an Active Choral Experience

Dr. Maurizio Bovero, Dr. Teresa SappaKerangas

Music Education in XXI Century requires an evolution both in terms of pedagogy and methodology. By its very nature, we can’t enclose or match the Kodály Concept with a time or a place: it must find a correspondence with the different realities of the world. In the same way chorality, fulcrum of its pedagogical thought, cannot be forced into preconceived schemes. In this perspective, teacher expands its functions as a catalyst of energies within the group and he is responsible to develop harmoniously skills and abilities of components, creating an environment where we have a bi-directional exchange. The workshop aims to investigate which strategies we can use to create a dimension of active listening where channels of multidimensional perception are activated and stimulated, through choral games, choir spatialization, movement, creating and improvisation. It will be shown how materials, chosen to create a bridge between traditional music and cultured heritage, can be deconstructed and re-elaborated to take on new form through creative and improvisational modalities. Improvisation will be dealt with different levels and parameters, from free to structured improvisation where the parameters are used with gradually increasing levels of awareness. Starting from known and simple material you can create new structures with areas of “alea” or re- elaborating. In this context, the creation of a suitable listening environment employing preparatory activities and games is of primary importance. So, movement is not conceived as a performative support, but as an instrument of internalization, comprehension and musical expression. The methodology, in line with principles of Kodály, aims to broaden and sharpen the polyphonic listening abilities, improvisation and creation through the extemporaneous learning of the material and the use of tools such as relative solmization and hand-signs. In this way, the choir takes on a workshop value, an open space, where musical ideas compared and constantly evolving, converge between them, and where the emotional component acquires great importance. At the end of the workshop, slides will be showed with the aim of summarizing the path. Applications for music education of the workshop is conceived for a choral group or a class group within an educational context. Material can be reworked at different levels, from primary school forward.
Thu 11:00 am – 11:50 am

Folk Song Improvisation

Dr. Zechariah GohOld Courthouse Function Room

Thu 11:00 am – 11:50 am

Planning with Puppets

Jenny FerrisTubau

Why use puppets?  Because they’re fun!  They can help shy singers to overcome their nerves  Puppets help students create a strong visual memory and association with a section of a lesson  Memory association creates continuity across lessons  Puppets can represent a theme, concept or skill (eg. Every time students see Sammy Snail they know they’ll be practising inner hearing)  Bringing out a puppet can refresh a class’ attention span when their enthusiasm is flagging.  A variety of purposes inc. vocal exploration, steady beat, inner hearing, behaviour modelling and concept representation
Thu 11:00 am – 11:50 am

The Effect of Auditory Processing Difficulties on Students’ Success Within Aural Activities

Ebony Birch-HangerOld Courthouse Auditorium

As Kodály educators we embrace an aural philosophy. Auditory processing (AP) difficulties are common. For students with such difficulties, the reliance on aural skills can pose challenges in their musical learning. Students can still be successful in a Kodály classroom but may require extra supports. This workshop will provide participants with an understanding of the elements involved in AP – what it is that students are having to do to process what they hear, and why are they having so much trouble engaging in seemingly simple activities. During the workshop you will become students in a Kodály classroom – the classroom of a Kodály educator who has many AP difficulties herself. Be engaged in a variety of activities in which auditory challenges are most prevalent. The workshop an understanding of how you can support your students to be successful during these activities. Purpose of the workshop: To provide participants with an understanding of: – the steps involved in AP – how specific AP difficulties may impact students’ ability to complete aural activities – ways to support students with such by providing extra supports Applications for music education: The content will provide participants with essential knowledge of how difficulties with processing auditory information can affect student’s learning. AP difficulties are common, however, many educators are unaware of what they are or how to support their students. This workshop will fill that gap. Participants will leave with ideas of how to create more inclusive classrooms. Relevant for special needs, mainstream and choral.
Thu 11:00 am – 11:50 am

2:00 pm – 5:00 pm Day 4 Afternoon Session

2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

Empowering At-Risk Children in the United States through a Holistic Approach to Music Education

Minami CohenNipah Room

Many students in the urban public school classrooms I teach face complex issues that can create challenges in their learning, performance, and social and emotional development. How can a music teacher keep academically at-risk students engaged in a lesson? How can we create a safe learning culture for all students? What effect can we have in child development beyond the music lesson? With a nurturing environment, quality materials, and appropriate strategies, teachers can guide students to become successful in music class, develop music competency, and cultivate a joy in music that lasts for a lifetime. More importantly, students can also learn skills they can apply outside of the music classroom to help them succeed, such as problem solving, self regulation, critical thinking, and compassion. Teachers must know themselves and their students. What needs and expectations do you bring into the classroom as a teacher? How do ideas like youth and family culture affect what students need in the classroom? Creating a classroom environment that nurtures students and their social and emotional wellbeing is essential. Do students have a quiet space that they can go when they need to calm down? Do the layout and decorations in the classroom help provide an effective learning environment, or invite distraction through overstimulation? It is also important to develop a classroom culture that is safe and inclusive for all students, encourages engagement and participation, and helps them to become compassionate and empathetic members of society. How can we make all students feel safe to sing in our classroom, use routines such as greeting students at the door and transitioning, to help create structure, and embed individualized support plans to help keep at-risk students focused in achieving their goals? Only the best is good enough – let songs do the teaching. How can we connect materials to modern society and help students develop critical thinking skills? What quality songs can we use in class that will help students understand and connect with each other. How can technology be utilized to increase student engagement? We need to reach beyond the classroom to have the greatest impact on our students, such as seeking resources and support form specialists, involving other teachers and families to the music programs, connecting with the greater community of music teachers, and participating in teacher mentorship.
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

Integrating Classroom and Instrumental Programmes: One Approach

Sarah LandisKabu Room

There can be a gaping divide between “classroom” practitioners and “instrumental” teachers in schools. This can lead to student confusion and a false hierarchy being established between instrumental and vocal music. One stumbling block is the opposite sequences used in popular instrumental tutor books and the sequence used by Kodaly teachers. Quite often, the perception is that a teacher is either classroom or instrumental and that one can never understand the other. While the two aspects of programs have idiosyncrasies and require specialist knowledge, the fact remains that we are all music teachers with the common goals of teaching students well and inspiring a love of learning music, be it instrumental or vocal. Recent research suggests that students create more permanent neural connections when similar pedagogical techniques are utilised by teachers. Additionally, by using the same sequence of teaching musical concepts, classroom and instrumental teachers can help cement student understanding in both vocal and instrumental contexts. In this presentation, one integrated approach will be discussed, including the steps to have staff talking the same musical language with students, using similar pedagogical approaches in classroom and instrumental lessons, common repertoire, and collaborating to prepare, present and reinforce musical concepts in lessons. This approach requires much communication of all staff involved and a commitment to finding common ground in all aspects of the music program.
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm

2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Environmental Audiation – The Role of Music and Music Making in Forest Schools

Katchia AvenellOld Courthouse Function Room

In this session, participants explore the role of deep listening and audiation in nature based learning, including the role of the environment in developing children's understanding of music and music making. Explore hands on activities to incorporate audiation, music and music making into a nature-based curriculum.
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Mini Men: Creating Effective Thinkers

Rebecca Thomas-Tubau

Hey Google/Alexa/Siri … will students be able to teach themselves music? … More and more at work and home we are reminded that technology is rapidly evolving and our role as educators is no longer to teach students content, but rather thinking skills. Programs are condensed, assessment items are reduced, time allocations are under pressure and curriculums are constantly changing – yet we are still expected to produce graduates that have a deep connection with and comprehensive understanding of Music; and hopefully, a desire to study further post-school. Given these parameters and goals, it seems logical to aim to ‘augment the diminished’ and empower students to take more responsibility for their own learning. My school (in Brisbane, Australia) has carefully crafted and refined a unique teaching and learning framework that encourages the development of an ‘Effective Thinking Culture’ across the entire school. In many ways I am exhausted by the constant references to the approach, but at the same time I am fully supportive of the framework, excited that my experience in the Kodály philosophy has prepared me well and relieved that my lesson plans and work programs are already aligned with this latest approach. Throughout the last 2 years at an all-boys school, I have challenged my middle school boys (mini men) to demonstrate high-visibility thinking in the music classroom. They have become accustomed to giving and receiving self and peer feedback when performing aural musicianship tasks, composing, reading and writing; and now look forward to getting ideas to improve their work. While completing scaffolded tasks, they have developed stronger independence, fluency and leadership skills and are more confident when guiding themselves and others through known or unknown situations. Consistent reference to concepts such as metacognition, audiation and endeavour has normalised this language in my classroom and following our motto “Think it – Sing it – Play it”, the students measure how they are tracking in these areas. This approach is far more wholistic than simply writing a learning intention on an interactive whiteboard at the start of each lesson and stimulates the students to consciously question why we do what we do and predict what’s ahead. My ultimate goal is to create thoughtful student musicians who accurately produce beautiful music in the short time we spend together. Just like in the classroom, this workshop will encourage participants to demonstrate high-visibility thinking, audiation, metacognition, provide feedback, and work through a strategy to learn a song independently. Motivational ideas will be discussed that promote kindness, endeavour, productive teamwork and a competitive spirit. Participants will discover new and exciting ways to think outside the box and leave with the knowledge that ETC = less Existential Teacher Crisis and more Effective Thinking Culture!
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Teaching Classical Form: Dobszay’s World of Tones and Beyond

Dr. Michael BradshawOld Courthouse Auditorium

Laszlo Dobszay’s textbook, World of Tones, is well known as an excellent resource through which secondary-school students are introduced to aspects of classical style in Kodály-inspired teaching. While Dobszay emphasises that a primary goal in his textbook is to develop an intuitive understanding of classical form through the singing and performing of musical examples from his textbook, he does not provide a detailed description of what these forms may be. The goal of this workshop is to show how material from Dobszay’s World of Tones can be used to teach the fundamentals of classical form, as well as act as a bridge to more advanced concepts such as sonata form. Recent research into Classical music form has uncovered a number of formal archetypes that can be easily grasped by the music student, contributing to their analytical, compositional, and listening skills. Specifically, this presentation will familiarise participants with a number of formal “theme-types” that the renowned musicologist, William Caplin has developed. Each of these theme types highlight the subtle, yet significant compositional decisions that Classical composers made when writing music of this style. The relatively short length of the theme-types lend themselves well to the secondary-school learning context, and participants will engage in form-identification and listening tasks to learn the basics of this theory. The majority of the examples used in this presentation will be taken from music included in Laszlo Dobszay’s World of Tones. These examples will then be further augmented by examples from Classical repertoire that link to more advanced concepts such as sonata forms. It is intended that that participants will be able to include these ideas into pre-existing units on Classical music. The session will be hands-on, and ideas will be presented in a manner suitable for a high school music class with a strong background in musical fundamentals. Sample educational material will be provided to participants in the session.
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

Using Greek Children Folk-Songs at the Solfege Preparatory Classes of the Kodály Conservatory in Athens

Michail (Michalis) PatseasKerangas

Since we have founded Kodály Conservatory and Greek Kodály Institute 30 years ago, in 1989, it was imperative to find ways to incorporate Greek folk music into the teaching of obligatory Solfege classes. The task was very difficult, due to the lack of adequate trustworthy collection of Greek Children folk songs. More problems arose: A lot of the „Children Folk Songs” were quite difficult in order to be used as beginner’s material. They were too diverse from each other, making it very difficult to compile logical programs connecting each other. They used scales rare in art music. Nevertheless, we have initiated more experimental programs, and in the recent years we managed to create a two-year long course named „ProCoro” aiming to be a S0lfege introductory course and a preparatory level for the Children Choir. The results are still fresh but very promising: The Greek material was better incorporated in the program. The children were better prepared for advancing both in solfege as well in choir. Relative solmization was better understood and applied. The workshop will show some videotaped material from the actual classroom of the Greek Kodály Conservatory, but mostly will stimulate the participants to learn some Greek folk songs, dances and games, while experiencing an example of the adaptation of Kodály methodology to Greek reality. The purpose of the workshop is to show that it is possible to find more paths leading from folk to art music, that there can be various ways to organize the local material of each different culture, being still faithful to the Kodály principles. It will also give a great opportunity to broaden the perception of the „European Folk Songs” and to show some material that can be a bridge between Western and Eastern Folk music. The presenter wishes to persuade the participants that Kodály’s notion of „beginning music education with material from the musical mother tongue of each child” is still valid and viable.
Thu 2:00 pm – 2:50 pm

3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

A Research Exploring the Use of Tonic Sol-fa In Teaching Very Young Piano Beginner

Hsin-Chu Kuo, Prof. Fung-Ching ChengKabu Room

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of applying Tonic Solfa on children’s piano learning development. This study adopted observational research and interview as research methods. The target research samples were three pre-kindergarten children; age was between 5-6 years olds. The three main themes of observational research were reading music, music playing technique, and the involvement of classroom participation.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

The Kodály Approach at the Intersection of Music Therapy in Malaysia

Dr. Indra V. SelvarajahNipah Room

The interweaving threads of history tracing the development of Kodaly’s approach and music therapy reveal similar philosophical underpinnings. The overarching tenet of Zoltan Kodaly’s philosophy that music belongs to everyone and that education in music is the right of every human being (The Kodály Concept, 1966, p. 2), resonates powerfully with the core belief of E. Thayer Gaston, a psychologist and one of the forefathers of music therapy in America who around the same time stated that “all mankind has need for aesthetic expression and experience (Music in therapy, 1968, p. 21). Kodaly outlined 5 major principles with reference to music education that echo the core values of music therapy: (1) The innate musicality present in all children should be developed to the fullest extent possible; (2) The language of music should be made known to children in the same way as spoken language so that they might be able to read, write, and create with the vocabulary of music; (3) Folk songs and musical heritage should be passed down to children; (4) High quality musical traditions from all over the world should be made available and accessible to all children; (5) Music is necessary for human development and should not be thought of or taught as a triviality (Choksy, Abramson, Gillespie & Woods, 1986; Brownell, Frego, Kwak & Rayburn, 2008). Similarly, music therapy aims to stimulate the development of each individual’s fullest potential through music to discover their latent musicality; use singing (both solo and choral), movement and musicianship skills to spur and support children’s language and physical development (including special needs children); recognize, respect and reinforce each individual’s cultural heritage and cultural music preferences whilst encouraging him or her to explore and appreciate the musical heritage and traditions of others including particular those who are different from him/herself in order to form a more inclusive, harmonious and genuinely integrated society. The values embedded in music therapy resonate on many levels with Kodaly’s approach – this is just a snapshot. Other music therapy scholars such as Darrow (2008), Brownell, Frego, Kwak & Rayburn (2013) and Tiszai (2015) are in similar agreement of the great potential to merge the Kodaly approach with music therapy. Unfortunately, to date the field of music therapy has remained largely unaware of the implications and significance of Kodaly’s approach due to their lack of exposure to Kodaly. As a music educator and music therapist with 19 years of experience teaching music in child development, music therapy, music in special education and music psychology at a government university in Malaysia, it is my unwavering and unequivocal belief that the merging of BOTH approaches will herald a new era for interdisciplinary collaboration between music education and music therapy and help to elevate, enhance and empower the Malaysian community in lieu of Malaysia Baru. The aspirations and hopes of the Malaysian people ride on a shared desire for harmony and genuine social integration. May music education and music therapy light the path and lead the way to positive social transformation.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm

3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

Improvisation and Composition in the Early Years

Renee HeronTubau

‘Just as children develop a repertoire of words and are able to create original sentences to express themselves based on those words, children should be invited to make up original tunes and songs.’ – John Feierabend Most music educators would agree that original musical thinking is the highest form of music thinking. Children’s play naturally involves imitation and improvisation and as teachers we should be giving our students the tools for thinking, permission for feeling and the opportunity for invention. Improvisation leads to the development of the art of composition. In order for our students to develop original musical thinking they need a safe place to fantasise, explore new ideas, take risks and make mistakes. It is important that we incorporate a sense of play in early attempts at improvisation activities and utilise the child’s natural creative instincts. This workshop will discuss what happens to our brain when we improvise and why it is of such importance for us to develop and nurture this skill in the early childhood and primary years as it will help to set children up for composition tasks as their musical skills progress. Participants will join in a number of practical activities, games, songs and rhymes that can be used to teach improvisation and composition, and will view videos and recordings of children, ages 5-10, performing these in a classroom setting. The workshop will also discuss different approaches we can take as Kodály music educators when developing sequences for improvisation and composition.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

Inspiring Music-Making in the Generalist Classroom – Nurturing a New Era of Singing; One Classroom Teacher at a Time

Rosalie ScottOld Courthouse Function Room

Whilst some generalist classroom teachers receive instruction on how to include music in their classroom curriculums, many in Australia have little to no experience. Often their past negative experiences in music class as a child or their perceived lack of skill and knowledge prohibit them for including any music at all in the daily lives of their students. This was my school five years ago. Music was for music class. Take a walk with me along my five-year journey towards generalist primary teachers embracing music-making in their classrooms. Explore the singing games, stories and repertoire most accessible to these teachers and how a shared language of learning led to a new era of song. This workshop will look at ideas to advocate for, support and nurture music in the general classroom. My passion for the Kodály method and the benefits of ‘music every day’ have driven me to turn 12 years of experience as a Specialist Music Teacher into a driving action for change, for integration of music into the general classroom and creating a singing culture that embraces everyone. This workshop will provide an interactive snap-shot of my journey through creating a proposal for the executive team, slow beginnings and teacher resistance, favourite songs and games, and the challenges of expanding a singing-based program from early childhood into upper primary school. Discover how singing stories bridged the gap, how to tackle the dreaded intake year group and tips on embracing new students and new teaching staff into a singing culture. Unlock the curriculum secrets of Bruce the Shark and The Walloping Window Blind. Explore advanced mathematical concepts with year 4 students and a tissue box. Find out how a Year 1 teacher accidentally practiced doh with her class. Experience the games and hear the stories that shaped a journey. Find the inspiration to nurture a new era of singing in your school; one classroom teacher at a time.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

The Integration of Teaching Methods in Musicianship Training

Josephine Ang, Jerison Harper LeeOld Courthouse Auditorium

The discussion of which is the best method in musicianship training will continue to exist and will probably stir up never-ending debates amongst educators around the world when it comes to choosing the one method. It may sound all too familiar to hear someone say: “oh, this method is all about singing folk songs isn’t it!” Or “that method is all about rhythmics and movement isn’t it?” While all these generalisations may be true to a certain extend, it is not the method’s entity. In order to get the best of both worlds, we need to examine the similarities and differences of the methods and learn how we can effectively and harmoniously merge them in our teaching. A teacher should be equipped with different approaches when dealing with different students instead of using one fixed way. In this workshop, we will explore the possibilities of integration of different pedagogy in effective musicianship training. We will discover music pedagogy as a whole rather than individual methods.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

Vocal Training According to the Kodály Method

Eirini PatseaKerangas

Kodály philosophy’s central aspect is that the musical training should be based on singing. Every level of musical teaching uses singing as the tool to reach musical comprehension and music practice, to expand sense of musicality, even train further abilities for playing musical instruments. Singing of course is by itself an art, its technique requires a coordination of multiple elements, both physical and mental. In the case of amateur choral scenery, teaching singing can be challenging; “correct” singing is broken down to not only correct intonation, but also healthy breathing, use of musical phrasing, vowel and consonant articulation etc. Teaching singing to an amateur choir not only provides with a quality sound, it also benefits the vocal health of the choristers, the musical production and at the same time gives the amateur chorister enough challenge to work for with enthusiasm. Analyzing the methodology of solfege teaching as described in the series of World of Tones by László Dobszay, we come across those basic elements that use singing as a vehicle to music teaching, which are also very suitable for systematizing vocal training: musical literacy, use of longer musical units, active music making, musical completion and repetitive variation. The focus points of solfege teaching can also indicate important stages of vocal teaching methodology: The development of musical skills and of musical understanding, the teaching of musical phenomena, the familiarization with music literature and the training of listening skills. Finally, we can’t neglect the most fundamental tool of the Kodály music pedagogy, the relative solmization, which is created to aid singing. But what are the benefits of using relative solmization in vocal training? All the above methodological aspects and pedagogical tools will be analyzed and seen in practice, while building up an extended vocal warm up session, aiming on the vocal training of amateur choristers. The issues of vocal technique, training of intonation and sound quality in a choir will be addressed and practiced trough singing. The workshop will also demonstrate in practice the creation and/or selection of vocal exercises and their use, will discuss suitable repertoire and useful material for the purpose of vocal training.
Thu 3:00 pm – 3:50 pm

4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

Telling the Tale of Kodály and the Australian Secondary Music Teacher: A Personal Journey Towards Narrative Inquiry Methodology

Anna Van VeldhuisenKabu Room

Methodological decisions made by researchers are often a reflection of their identity, beliefs, educational background, and personal history. This author’s doctoral thesis will employ a multiple case study narrative inquiry to explore how the Kodály concept manifests in the professional lives of Australian secondary music educators, describing how these teachers have adopted/adapted the historically Hungarian method for their setting and how their involvement with the approach has impacted their beliefs, values, and identity. This paper outlines this methodological approach by positioning it within the context of the author’s own personal story as a researcher, musician, and teacher. Following a short autobiographical narrative, the use and benefits of multiple case study narrative inquiry in exploring the stories of Australian Kodály-inspired teachers is discussed. Finally, the intended strategies for data collection are explained (such as interview, document analysis, and observation) and potential re-storying approaches are discussed (drawing on arts-inspired methods). Narrative research in education acknowledges and explores the many subjective influences on the practice of teachers; as such it would be hypocritical for the author to not acknowledge the impact of personal stimuli on her research method. In particular, the influence of an upbringing in a small, rural Australian town surrounded by teachers sharing stories of their practice has driven the author to see the epistemological and ontological value of narrative in pedagogical reflection. Similarly, the author’s own music education and early teaching experiences are shown to have impacted her beliefs about the purpose of music education and the power of observation in pedagogical development. By situating her methodological choices as a reflection of biographical narrative and standpoint, the author hopes to give increased transparency to her doctoral research process whilst also highlighting the inherently interwoven and personal nature of life as a teacher, musician, and early career researcher.
Thu 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

The Spirit of Kodály and the Community Music Therapy Approach in the Practice of Nádizumzum, an Orchestra of Musicians with Severe Disabilities (This session will be a video presentation)

Dr. Luca TiszaiNipah Room

Traditionally, music therapy has developed as a paramedical profession, focusing on illnesses, disorders and different developmental problems. Community music therapy is an emerging new field of music therapy with the aim of changing the pathogenic viewpoint of therapy, and considers all kind of musical activity as a powerful social resource and agent health promotion. Kodály was aware of the social context of music to build, heal, and strengthen communities through music. People with different limitation of movement, communication are not considered to be able to play music. Consonante method was worked out to prove the claim of Kodály according to which „music is for everyone”. The method is based on three basic elements: uses the innate musical behavior (vitality affects), modify different musical instruments to suit the ability of its player and tune instruments to a simplified backpipe-bass accompaniment for folk songs. Nádizumzum is a performing orchestra, consists of adults with severe disabilities of a nursing home from Ipolytölgyes, Hungary. People with severe disabilities are usually suffer from social exclusion. The first impression of dependency and powerlessness usually evokes pity and prevent future social connection with these people. However, common shared music has a power to strengthen common cultural identity and build a musical community both with amateur or professional co-performers and with the members of the audience. As Kodály elaborated a detailed musical plan to respond to his time’s social needs and problems, the purpose of the Consonante method is to provide the power of music in social inclusion.
Thu 4:00 pm – 4:30 pm

4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

“Bangau Oh Bangau”: A Versatile Malaysian Children’s Song

JoKymboTubau

Thu 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

Games Session

Lucinda GeogheganOld Courthouse Function Room

Thu 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

Piano Masterclass

Prof. Gilbert De GreeveOld Courthouse Auditorium

Thu 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

柯达伊教育思想在中国中小学 音乐课堂教学和教师培训中的 研究与实践 (此工作坊将以华语呈现) Research and Practice of Kodály ‘s Educational Philosophy in Primary and Secondary Schools Music Classroom Teaching and Teachers’ Training * This session will be presented in Mandarin.

Cui Jian 崔健Kerangas

背景介绍: 北京柯达伊学会自2011年成立以来,以“让音乐属于每一个人为”宗旨,针对中国音乐 教学本身的特点,结合本民族的语言和音乐,向北京以及中国其他地区介绍和推广柯达伊 教学体系。目前,学会已有实名注册会员2300余人,网络会员8000余人,实验基地学校 30所。八年来,北京柯达伊学会已对近10000人进行柯达伊教学法培训,并且研发和生产 了具有很大实用价值的教学用具(教师节奏卡、学生节奏卡、移动dol磁力五线谱,学生五 线谱读谱套装等)。2018 年,北京柯达伊学会在中国首次引进、出版柯达伊著作《柯达伊 333首读谱练习》。 展示目的: 与来自世界各地的柯达伊学者、柯达伊教育者进行交流。 展示内容: 1. 介绍北京柯达伊学会成立的背景,发展和成就。(PPT展示) 2. 介绍学会如何向中国的中小学教师、学前教师介绍柯达伊教学体系,进行教师培训 。(PPT展示) 3. 展示学会研发的教师教具,学生学具。并示范教学片段,展示如果将柯达伊教学思想 结合中国民族音乐(京剧、民族器乐),运用现有课本,在中小学进行音乐教学。( 自备展示组) 4. 解答问题
Thu 4:00 pm – 4:50 pm

4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

Pendidikan Seni Muzik di Malaysia: Ringkasan Perkembangan dan Cabaran * Kaertas penyelidikan ini akan dibentangkan dalam Bahasa Melayu. Music Education in Malaysia: An Overview of Development and Challenges * This paper will be presented in Malay.

Dr. Ramona Mohd. TahirKabu Room

Tujuan pembentangan ini adalah untuk memberi gambaran keseluruhan kepada pendidikan seni muzik di Malaysia dengan penekanan kepada muzik di sekolah-sekolah kebangsaan. Sejak ianya diperkenalkan sebagai mata pelajaran wajib di kesemua sekolah-sekolah rendah di Malaysia pada 1983, mata pelajaran muzik telah mengalami pelbagai situasi turun naik. Pembentangan ini akan menonjolkan beberapa pilihan acara utama dalam perkembangan pendidikan seni muzik di Malaysia dan juga mengutarakan sebahagian daripada cabaran mata pelajaran muzik di sekolah – dengan harapan kesedaran yang terhasil dari pendedahan kepada isu-isu berkenaan akan meningkatkan sokongan terhadap pendidikan seni muzik yang seterusnya akan membawa kepada penambahbaikan status pendidikan seni muzik di Malaysia secara keseluruhannya. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a general overview of music education in Malaysia, focusing on music in the national schools. Since its inception as a compulsory subject in all Malaysian primary schools in 1983, music has had various ups and downs. This presentation will highlight selected key events in the development of music education in Malaysia and put forth some of its challenges – in the hope that awareness of the issues will pave the way to increasing support and overall improvement of music education in Malaysia.
Thu 4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

音画应用于国小一年级音乐欣赏教学之行动研究 (此论文将以华语呈现) An Action Research on Applying Tone-Painting in Music Appreciation for First-Grade Students * This paper will be presented in Mandarin.

Hui-Ju Kuo, Shu-Chun ChenNipah Room

柯大宜音樂教學的全人教育除了追求內在品格外,更致力於提 升學生對於美的感受力,品味藝術與生活。研究者在教學研究中透 過民謠與古典音樂的呈現,引導學生有意識地認知樂曲中的音樂元 素,除了指導學生養成安靜聆聽音樂的習慣外,更進一步的聽之有 物。 本研究旨在探討以「柯大宜音樂教學法」教授國小一年級生活 課程中之音樂,藉由歌唱與音畫引導學生在音樂欣賞中的認知與情 意,提升學童音樂賞析之學習成果與教師之專業成長。本研究以台 中市某國小一班學童為研究參與者,研究期為12週共計12堂課,採 行動研究法,並以「教師教學省思日誌」、「學生回饋單」、「錄 影」與「研究諍友觀察紀錄」做為研究工具,以蒐集資料並分析, 同時以三角檢證交叉檢核歸納整理。 本研究期於教學研究後,根據學生之學習成果與回饋改進教學 策略與流程,以提供其他國小音樂教師做為參考。 關鍵詞: 柯大宜、音畫、音樂欣賞
Thu 4:50 pm – 5:20 pm

4:50 pm – 5:40 pm

No workshops in this session.

Friday 9 Aug 2019

10:00 am – 12:00 pm Day 5 Morning Session

10:00 am – 10:30 am

An Action Research on Applying Movable Do System in Teaching Violin Accuracy

I-Ling Chen, Prof. Fung-Ching ChengNipah Room

The study aimed to study the strategies of applying movable do system and it’s influence on the pitch accuracy, including tuning pitch and song performing pitch accuracy, in violin courses of young beginners. This research was designed in action research of A-B-A single subject with 24 primary courses for six violin beginners, subjects were divided into two classes in order to facilitate the implementation of the study. The researchers collected data from the observation meter, teaching journal and the performance assessment, and analyzed the data quantitatively and qualitatively afterward. Through the observation meter and performance assessment, the quantitative analysis was discussed according to graphs, visual analysis and the C test; according to the results of words description in observation meter, teaching journal, the quantitative analysis was discussed. The results and the conclusion of the analysis were listed as following: Ⅰ. There was positive effect on tuning pitch accuracy of the violin beginners after taught through movable do system. According to results of C test, there were significant differences for two classes on tuning pitch accuracy from A stage to B stage. According to results of graphs and visual analysis, there were positive improvement for two classes on tuning pitch accuracy from A stage to B stage. Ⅱ. There was positive effect on song performing pitch accuracy of the violin beginners after taught through movable do system. According to results of C test, there were significant differences for two classes on song performing pitch accuracy from A stage to B stage. B. According to results of graphs and visual analysis, there were positive improvement for two classes on song performing pitch accuracy from A stage to B stage. III. Rote singing before violin playing, letter name for defining pitches, and left hand movement were effective strategies while applying moveable do system.
Fri 10:00 am – 10:30 am

The Teachings of Katalin Forrai: Raising the Standards of Early Childhood Music Education

Dr. Beth Turner MattinglyKabu Room

The research for this paper was conducted in 2013-2014 as part of the research for my doctoral dissertation. I was very fortunate to have been granted a Fulbright Student Grant, an International Kodály Society Scholarship, and the Jenő Ádám Scholarship awarded by the Organization of American Kodály Educators. This funding allowed me to live in Kecskemét, Hungary for nine months, where I was able to study and conduct research at the Zoltán Kodály Pedagogical Institute of Music. The focus of this research project was to determine the contribution of Katalin Forrai (1926-2004) in the development of early childhood music education in Hungary and its influence internationally. The research methodology for this project followed the protocol for narrative- biographical research within a historical study. An emergent design was followed as data was collected through primary and secondary sources found within the Katalin Forrai special collection held in the Archives of the Zoltán Kodály Pedagogical Institute in Kecskemét, Hungary. Data was collected through fifteen in-depth interviews with people of significance who knew and worked with Katalin Forrai, including members of her family, Elizabeth Moll, Erzsébet Szőnyi, Helga Dietrich, Dr. Gábor Róbert, and Dr. Ittzés Mihály. Katalin Forrai was an outstanding music educator who worked with Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967) to develop early childhood music education in Hungary. She developed an education model that has greatly influenced the international field of early childhood music education. In 1952, she began her most famous teaching at the kindergarten of Csobánc utca, where she taught for forty-eight years. From 1953 to 1985, she provided music programs for kindergarten and nursery school children, which were broadcast twice a week through the Hungarian Radio. Forrai also became the national supervisor of early childhood music education at the National Pedagogical Institute in Budapest. This position placed her in charge of coordinating the country’s kindergartens and teacher training program. Katalin Forrai raised the standards for the field of early childhood music education by developing a carefully designed curriculum for kindergarteners and implementing higher standards in the training of kindergarten teachers, serving as a model for the development of music education programs today.
Fri 10:00 am – 10:30 am

10:00 am – 10:50 am

Contemporary Folk-Inspired Choral Music of Canada – From Page to Performance through Pedagogy

Dr. Tracy WongOld Courthouse Auditorium

Canadian choral educators and conductors are constantly making efforts to include more multicultural choral music in classrooms and performances to reflect and celebrate the diverse population on their country. This encourages composers to expand the Canadian contemporary choral landscape through the inclusion of folk-inspired works. Some distinctive styles of writing show the inclination to create imagery or acoustical effects through vocal production and movement, thus creating exciting performances. But how do we take it from the printed page to the performance stage? With the help of singers from Young Choral Academy Malaysia, this presentation aims to highlight Canadian contemporary folk-inspired choral works for treble choirs that explores a variety of choral timbres and performance styles incorporating movement and vocal exploration. We will investigate how well-crafted music enables singers to be flexible musicians by demonstrating selected repertoire that fits into creative performance settings and provides variety in vocal styles. In addition, we will explore how the music of Canadian composer and pedagogue Nancy Telfer facilitates the development of transferable skills in performing contemporary music. The presenter will suggest appropriate vocal stylings suitable for this music through healthy vocal techniques. The live demonstrations will be complemented with musical excerpts which will be projected on slides. The audience will be invited to participate in this session, and will be provided handouts containing a list of resources (publishers, noted recordings, repertoire, noted composers, diction and International Phonetic Alphabet guide) and excerpts of the music. The audience will benefit from exploring ideas for creative, engaging, and meaningful choral performances and programming. This presentation will also allow greater access for educators and conductors to Canadian contemporary folk-inspired choral music for treble choirs, appropriateness in vocal performance and ultimately provide a resource for choral educators and conductors to confidently include Canadian repertoire into classroom teaching and concert programming.
Fri 10:00 am – 10:50 am

Songs of Borneo Through a Kodály Lens

Dr. Chong Pek LinOld Courthouse Function Room

Borneo is home to more than forty indigenous groups, with languages mainly belonging to the Austronesian family. Many of these groups dwell on both sides of the Indonesian/Malaysian border. This session features seven pentatonic songs from three groups, the Kenyah, Selako and Kadazan. Video-clips of field recordings will be shown, followed by an exploration of their application in music education and choral repertoire, using a Kodály approach. Apart from singing the melodies and harmonies in solfa, participants will learn simple dance-movements and try out some ethnic instruments. Most of the songs are from the Kenyah community (collected and transcribed over the last 20 years by session-leader Chong Pek Lin from Northern Sarawak) . The Kenyah are well-known for their instrumental music (such as the sape and jatung utang) and graceful dances (such as the women’s dance performed with a ringlet of hornbill feathers, and the supple male warrior dance). They possess a sophisticated choral culture with a large repertoire of dance-songs, often sung in two to three-part harmony. The whole community sings a capella, while executing simple dance-steps along the veranda of their longhouses in the interior of Borneo. The lyrics reflect the upriver life-style of the Kenyah, such as the boat-song Nombor Satu Nombor Dua and the two-part dance-song Saping Sapau (“Under the eaves of the longhouse”). The iconic song Wek Jongan of the Selako, a sub-group of the Bidayuh of Southern Sarawak, which is often performed with dance depicting padi-growing will also be featured, together with the peruncong, a bamboo percussion instrument. The session will end with Jambatan Tamparuli, the iconic song of the Kadazandusun from the neighbouring state of Sabah in Northern Borneo together with an introduction to the basic steps of the sumazau, a Kadazandusun dance.
Fri 10:00 am – 10:50 am

The Story Book Project – How to Do Peter and the Wolf Type Projects in Your Classroom Music Programme

Jennifer GillanKerangas

This session will discuss and show participants what is involved in undertaking and realising a Classroom Composition project based around a chosen children’s story book. Students explore musical themes, melody and harmony writing and eventually perform their orchestrated story to primary students. This workshop is based on my experience of working through these projects with the year 7 and 8 students at the Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School over many years; from inception to composition to the practicalities of rehearsing and performing these works with junior secondary school students.
Fri 10:00 am – 10:50 am

台灣原住民音樂故事與遊戲 (此工作坊将以华语呈现) Music Story and Games of Taiwan Aborigines * This workshop will be presented in Mandarin.

Professor Jessie H. S. Chen 陳曉嫻, Hui-Ju Kuo, 郭惠如, Shu-Chun Chen 陳淑純Tubau

臺灣原住民族約有55萬人,佔臺灣總人口數的2%。目前經政府認定的原住 民族計有16族,各自擁有其文化、語言、風俗習慣、社會結構。原住民族現居 於臺灣各地,經行政院核定的「原住民地區」包括55個鄉鎮市。臺灣的原住民 族可分為南島語族和平埔族群,南島語族多數保有自己的語言、風俗習慣和部 落結構,平埔族群則大多被漢民族同化,而失去了原有的語言。 本次工作坊將教唱布農族的起源傳說「能高山」,藉由看圖唱歌了解布農 族的故事,並於熟唱後加入和聲伴奏。第二首排灣族的「一起唱歌吧」有工整 的樂句,並在演唱中搭配簡單的踏步擺手,作為吟唱時的頑固伴奏,而後逐步 變換不同的舞步,反覆頌唱歌曲。除此之外,我們將介紹賽夏族的兒童歌唱遊 戲,包括打獵歌、拍手歌、數數歌。 歌曲原來便有文化意涵,透過教師的引導,更可培育學習者之音樂基本能 力,如分部能力訓練、和聲、頑固伴奏等。期能在工作坊中,能與參會者以音 樂做文化交流。
Fri 10:00 am – 10:50 am

11:00 am – 11:30 am

Development and Implementation of an Aural Sequence for a Beginner Band Program

Carla TrottNipah Room

This paper reports on a three-year pilot study of the implementation of a ‘Beginner Band’ program for primary school students who have been involved in intensive Kodály-inspired (aural-vocal) Music education. By the age of nine, students in the established classroom music program have developed into independent musicians with sophisticated knowledge and understanding of essential musical skills. Therefore, steady progress and ultimate success when commencing tuition on an instrument is expected. The school’s Choral and String programs were very successful and largely attended by students. However, low uptake of Band instruments (Woodwind, Brass and Percussion) in both private tuition and extra-curricular ensembles was evident in 2015. A dwindling Band program, unbalanced ensemble and negative culture associated with the Band program was the result, with the potential of a non-existent Band program looming. The solution: the implementation of a Beginner Band program which integrated the instrument-specific playing requirements with the aural sequence used in the Classroom Music program. In this paper, the unique context of this pilot study will be discussed, as will the importance of the collaboration between classroom Music teachers and Beginner Band tutors, as this was considered integral to the success and further development of the program. The specific repertoire selection, integration strategies and techniques, process of implementation and the amendment of a supportive aural sequence will also be discussed.
Fri 11:00 am – 11:30 am

Shaping and Supporting Young Boys’ Identity Work In and Through Daily Class Music

Jason GoopyKabu Room

A child’s developing musical identity can shape and support their broader identity work. Musical identities can be examined by children’s uses of music (music in identities) and the musical roles they adopt (identities in music). Their musical identities can be influenced by music learning and development, highlighting the potential of school music education. Little research has studied the role and impact of intensive daily school music classes on young children’s identity work. This paper draws on a doctoral research project investigating the role of music in boys’ identity work and aspects of class music that shape and support this work. Research was conducted in an Australian independent P-12 boys’ school using one-on-one semi-structured interviews incorporating a “draw and tell” artefact elicitation technique with 8 students in Year 3 and their parents. All students were engaged in their fourth year of Kodály- inspired daily music education as part of the normal school curriculum. Parent interviews and teacher reflexivity were used to triangulate student views and offer further insight. Data was interpreted through the lens of narrative analysis giving voice to young boys’ in the co- construction of knowledge. This paper presents the analysis, discussion and findings of how young boys’ identity work is shaped and supported in and through daily class music. Findings indicate that the music teacher philosophy and pedagogy, and the subsequent development of music skills and understanding through intensive music education can positively influence young boys’ sense of self-concept. This case study is used to suggest future theory, policy and practice recommendations.
Fri 11:00 am – 11:30 am

11:00 am – 11:50 am

Games Session

Lucinda GeogheganOld Courthouse Function Room

Fri 11:00 am – 11:50 am

Issues of Movable-Do and Fixed-Do Systems at Grade Schools in Korea, Japan and Taiwan: Inevitable Commonalities as Far Eastern Countries

Chair: Prof. Masafumi Ogawa. Discussants: Dr. Hong-Ky Cho, Prof. Jessie Hsiao-Shien ChenTubau

Solmization is one of the fundamental processes in teaching songs. It is an essential method in understanding melodies, pitch intervals in order to sing correctly. The syllables “Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti(Si)” are commonly used throughout the world. There are two systems in using these syllables; movable-Do and fixed-Do. There have been significant debates about the two systems usability, practicality, and feasibility since the 19th century. Although movable-Do has historically been the authentic method of music learning since the age of Guido d’Alezzo, the fixed-Do approach became predominant in the 19th century when the piano became the major musical instrument among beginning musicians. Before the systemization of school education, Western music and the Western notation system were not included in the traditional culture in most Asian countries. After mid-nineteenth century, these were suddenly introduced along through the modernization and Westernization processes associated with colonization, Christian missionaries, and implementation of modern education systems from Europe and the United States. Therefore, it has been challenging for Asian countries to accommodate and assimilate Western music and culture with their own music and culture. Today, although the school-based music education of Taiwan, Korea, and Japan flourishes and reaches high performance standards, there seem to have common problem in terms of solmization issue in the music classrooms. It is the fact that fixed-Do system is predominantly used in music classes of grade schools in these three countries. Although the movable-Do system is considered legitimate in the music classes in these three countries, but in reality, the majority of music teachers in these three countries teach music according to the fixed-Do system. In Japan’s case, great majority of music teachers have begun studying music with piano. Particularly in elementary schools, most of the music teachers are female who have majored in piano at college. They are taught nothing but in fixed-Do system by their college professors. Japanese piano professors both in professional music colleges and education institutions teach only fixed-Do and encourage students to bear “absolute pitch.” As a result, fixed-Do system became the default in music classes without any knowledge of movable-Do system. Recently, the music psychologist Ken’ichi Miyazaki presented data that showed that 83% of music college students in Japan bear absolute pitch, whereas 50% in China, and 17% in Poland (Miyazaki, 2018). Furthermore, Japanese music major students scored worst in relative pitch calculation tests among these three countries. (Ibid.) This situation seems to have been a cause of problems and difficulties in teaching singing in Japanese music classes. Many music teachers do not have pitch-matching skills as well as harmonizing in pure tonal system. They sometimes force students to gain absolute pitch regardless of their musical pitch cognition skills. Therefore, the aims of this panel discussion is three-fold. (1) Acknowledging the realities of the solmization issues and difficulties in teaching singing in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan (2) Discussing the structure of causes in each country and finding the common underlying problems. (3) Discussing the way to the solutions in order for changing from the fixed-Do domination to the movable-Do as main stream. In this session, Prof. Masafumi Ogawa will introduce the situation and problems in Japan regarding teaching singing in elementary and junior high schools as well as music teacher education. Professor Dr. Jessie Hsiao-Shien Chen will discuss about the situation of solmization in Taiwan. Dr. Hong-Ky Cho will talk about the situations in Korea and about his opinions from observation from Korean music education policy and choir training. After each panels’ presentation, we will discuss together the similarities and differences regarding movable-do and fixed-do issues of music education in Asian countries. At the end, we also will include participants' discussion from these aspects.
Fri 11:00 am – 11:50 am

The Creative Piano Pedagogy – Overview of the “ZeneZen” Course at the Kodály Institute, Hungary

Anikó NovákOld Courthouse Auditorium

,, ZeneZen ” is a piano pedagogy course based on the Kodály and Kokas method. However, it also engages in general musical terms, rules – rhythm, sheet music, tempo, characters, style etc. – which are important to all musicians. The two methods should not be separated from each other; their goal is the same, but they reach it in different ways: they complement and help each other in practicing, instrumental and general music teaching. On other other hand, ZeneZen is the musical and artistic fulfillment of Kodaly’s and Kokas’s philosophy through piano playing and piano pedagogy.   What can be more natural than music and movement intertwining or singing being one of the most ancient of human utterances? In the Kodály Institute the sessions are led by two teachers, Kata Körtvési and myself. Both of us take part, complete, help and inspire each other.  We draw on solfège and on Kokas’ in teaching general concepts in music and piano technique (touch, legato, leggiero, accord technique, small technique etc.). For example, it is much easier to feel a slow legato motion, if in addition to imagining the tune and the tempo with our inner ear in advance, we also imagine the quality and character of the tune and the notes or, if we feel the weight of our steps in slow motion, the way we put our feet on the ground, or how two steps are connected.  In our courses, we give ideas to our students to motivate them in their teaching, to help them not to get tired and bored of their work, to teach them to call on their inner child in using their creativity, fantasy, since we simply cannot do harm or wrong if we do this from love. In my presentation I take up the difficult task of sharing the experiences of the past two years. I’d like to give a short, but quite comprehensive overview of how we use this creative, experience based music pedagogy at the Kodály Institute, Hungary. You’ll see pictures and videos from the lessons and I will read some quotes from our former students about the course. I will also demonstrate the synergy of these three approaches (piano, solfège, free movement) throughout piano pieces.
Fri 11:00 am – 11:50 am